Though the TANGO is an essentially "porteño" product, that is to say, born and developed about the PORT of Buenos Aires, has exerted its influence on the rest of Argentina. In a range that doing axis in the " Capital of the Plata ", it included great part of the so called " Humid Pampas": north of the province of Buenos Aires, south of those of Santa Fé and Entre Ríos, managing to be inserted by great depth in another shore of the De la Plata River, in the Oriental Band of the Uruguay.
That's why in the history of Tango prominently variety of performers, musicians, vocalists, composers and poets, drawn from many localities, towns, suburbs and small towns surrounding the three main within this radius: BUENOS AIRES, ROSARIO and MONTEVIDEO.
Argentina, large geographical spread, has generated in other parts of its vast territory varied cultural musical influences of other ethnic backgrounds were adjacent. So besides the tango that can be considered the “Porteño Folklore” (zone I) coexist other regional Folklors, as:
- THE COAST (zone II): With great influence of the Guarani people and European immigrants (mostly Germans, Poles and White Russians). It counts among its musical rhythms as the CHAMAMÉ, the POLKA, the GUARANIA, the RASGUIDO DOBLE, etc.., Being its most prominent instruments the accordion, guitar and harp.
- NORTH (Zone III): The very rich musical expression with influences of this highland region but is deeply rooted “criolla” (descendants of Spanish conquistadors) is has as the major rythm the ZAMBA, which has nothing to do with the Brazilian SAMBA.
Other tunes are regional Baguala and Carnavalito, Inca influential profusion of the use of drum, the box and wind instruments such as quena, criolla guitars, and charango. The particularly beautiful CHACARERA which center in the province of Santiago del Estero, which includes within its instruments the bandoneon and the violin, can also be included within this region and sub-zone.
- Cuyo (region IV): Includes the music of the Andean central regions closely related to the Chilean. There are CUECA, TONADA, and typical VALSES, with its central instrument is the guitar.
- SOUTHERN (zone V): Includes a variety of melodic rhythms starting with the Milonga of Buenos Aires, the STYLES almost exclusively performed on guitar (similar to Spanish). Further south, in Patagonia, there are other rhythms related to the ethnic groups of the region as the Mapuche people, Tehuelche, people etc.
Though the area of influence of the tango is not so wide in its extension, it includes the region of major density, where one finds 80 % of the Argentine population, Buenos Aires is not the whole Argentina, but if your center of gravity in all the natures. It is the capital of the country and one of the most important of South America. Its influence has been and is well-known in the whole region, for what it must not surprise that its more distinguished musical manifestation, THE TANGO, has been considered to be historically its more out-standing product and of universal knowledge.
It is impossible to pretend to embrace the rich history of this genre, but a brief introductory approach
At late 19th century when the city of Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina, was still surrounded by the desert pampa, was born a new music called Tango. Regarding his pace recognizes the musical influence of Central Havana, Spanish music and milongas the “payadores” that played in the fields far from large cities and of having a melting pot made up of immigrants with their habits and feelings. The term "citizen music" includes also the tango to the waltz and milonga.
The first tango musicians played instinctively, groups are formed with flute, guitar, violin and a strange instrument of German origin: the bandoneon. Rosendo Mendizabal, Angel Villoldo and others started what became known as the Old Guard who were the first interpreters of our music and they had their continuity Juan Maglio "Pacho" and Vicente Greco creator in 1911 of the Typical Orchestra as it was called the organized group with different instruments that played citizen music.
The figure of the singer was built by Carlos Gardel (1890 - 1935) in 1917, when he sings the verses of "Mi noche triste" by Pascual Contursi and Samuel Castriota, marking the beginning of singing the tango with an argument. His figure had great resonance even to shoot several films in the United States that were displayed throughout the world, some of them were "El dia que me quieras", "Tango Bar", "Cuesta abajo”. In Argentina were also myths of citizens among other songs, Agustin Magaldi and Ignacio Corsini. Apart from Argentina were screened with the force's own figures Gardel, Charlo, Hugo del Carril and Agustin Irusta. There should not be omitted for the songs, those represented by Azucena Maizani, Libertad Lamarque and Mercedes Simone, who won the affection of the American public.
Between 1915 and 1930 musical innovations introduced by Eduardo Arolas, Agustin Bardi, Francisco Canaro and Roberto Firpo among others, identified two distinct currents, the traditional and the evolutionist, the latter finding its exponents in Julio and Francisco de Caro.
The Golden Age
No doubt the great golden age of Tango was the 1940s. Countless musicians, poets, performers, plus the contribution of radio, cabaret and dance halls, determined the appearance of the binomial singer - orchestra: Troilo - Fiorentino ; Troilo - Marino ; Dárienzo - Echague ; Tanturi - Castillo ; Tanturi - Campos ; De Angelis - Martel ; Pugliese - Morán ; Sassone - Casal ; Sassone - Chanel ; Gobbi - del Río ; and many others.
The Dance, The Embrace:
The dance is performed by a man and a woman walking embraced that carry the beat and figures with their feet on their displacements.
" This dance of tango is a dance of couple embraced with an embrace that is containment, no squeezing. Embracing is to give with opened arms and receive with the whole body, and together the two members moving in space, but not in any given area, is a space created by the two. This dance is a real body and loving dialogue. Tango in couples is a form of self-knowledge, in tango you can be protective or the protected one, a dominated or dominating, can be tender or violent, or other times to be dancing in true ecstasy. In tango bodies have put together a circuit of mixed tensions. The arm should be strong, the legs in contact. It is a dance of affection and communication, tango is talk, talk, talk. (From the book "Loving you with eyes open” by Jorge Bucay).
A distinct language with its own creation, joined a group of musicians who belonged for generations the forties, but they were called to create a new stage. This process called Modern Tango, was marked from Horacio Salgán, Mariano Mores, Eduardo Rovira and Astor Piazzolla, and granted a permanent basis for a new search.
Like any art form, Tango found from the poetic, sung, instrumental and dance, the elements necessary for its evolution. He joined the cinema, literature and visual arts constitute long summary of Argentine identity.
Global figures from other genres have been conquered by the Tango and reached memorable recordings, Tito Schipa, Plácido Domingo and Julio Iglesias among the soloists and the Boston Pop, Tropical Serenade Andre Kostelanetz and between the orchestras. The film also interested and besides the numerous local films with urban music background is well-known recent success of the genre are in big movies like "Scent of a Woman where Al Pacino plays a blind dancing a tango European style - though not the way to Buenos Aires and Philippe Noiret who danced in "The Postman".
The Tango was heard, sang and danced in all areas. At present there is an increase in the spread of urban music that is manifested in the many voices and new groups that share the night of Buenos Aires along with the traditional figures exist numerous halls and dance schools.